Surgical procedures increase the physical exertion faced by the body during and after the intervention. Patients undergoing surgery are therefore first 'risk stratified' by doctors for chances of developing any complications that may affect recovery during or after surgery. A person's exercise tolerance prior to surgery is an important factor that can aid in clinically estimating how well he/she can tolerate surgery. In addition, when assessing a patient's risks for surgical complications, cardiovascular risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes control, a smoking history or an existing history of heart disease are given particular emphasis since any surgical intervention will cause an increase in the amount of work needed to be performed by the heart. If a patient is noted to be at higher risk for heart problems that may affect surgical outcomes, measures can be taken to reduce these risk factors and effectively 'optimize' the patient for the best chance of an uncomplicated recovery. Evaluation of a patient's peri-operative risk factors can involve a thorough clinical history, physical examination, blood tests, stress testing and other ancillary studies such as imaging. Optimization can include medication management, lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation and weight loss, and occasionally interventional procedures targeted at improving heart health. Dr. Carfagno and his team combine expert clinical judgement, decades of experience and evidence based diagnostic algorithms to appropriately evaluate and manage your health before surgery. Call SSMI at 480-664-4615 today to schedule your evaluation.