Knowledge Base

  • COVID-19

  • Published on Mar 19 2020
    Thank you for being a valued patient at Scottsdale Sports Medicine Institute.  We are committed to your health and well-being. Please read for important updates about our practice: Our office is still open to meet your health care needs and are committed more than ever to providing a safe... Read More
  • Burners, Stingers, and Acute Brachial Plexus Injuries

  • Published on Mar 12 2019
    The brachial plexus is a collection of nerves on each side of the neck. The bulk of the structure is found in the lower neck although it originates from the spinal cord and extends into the armpit. The brachial plexus has many subdivisions and provides the nervous input and output for the chest,... Read More
  • Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment

  • Published on Mar 12 2019
    Dr. Carfagno has been doing Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment (OMT) for 29 years.   Dr. Carfagno likes to combine OMT with physical therapy, myofascial and stretch therapy as well as re-education to maximize healing and prevent further injury and pain. There are different types of osteopathic... Read More
  • Do you have Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome? Based on real cases at SSMI

  • Published on Mar 11 2019
    Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome is a term used to describe a group of genetic disorders related to the synthesis and processing of the different types of collagen. There are 6 major types: classic, hypermobile, vascular, kyphoscoliosis, arthrochalasia, and dermatosparaxis. The vascular type is the most... Read More
  • Regenerative Injection Therapy

  • Published on Mar 07 2019
    HOW DOES PRP THERAPY WORK? To prepare PRP (Platelet Rich Plasma), a small amount of blood is taken from the patient. The blood is then placed in a centrifuge. The centrifuge spins and automatically produces the PRP. The entire process takes less than 15 minutes and increases the concentration of... Read More
  • Male Mature Athlete Program

  • Published on Mar 06 2019
    For over two decades plus, Dr Carfagno has managed athletes and their medical care.  The aging athlete is a very popular patient profile here.  It started back in Cleveland Clinic Foundation during his residency and fellowship where in 1997 he was lecturing on Supplements in fellowship in front... Read More
  • How much protein do I need?

  • Published on Mar 05 2019
    A recent review article by Trommelen et al tackled the age old question with a comprehensive analysis of over one hundred sports medicine-related research papers. Our bodies are highly adaptive and are constantly varying the rates of muscle turnover and breakdown based on our nutritional status and... Read More
  • DEXA Body Composition Scans

  • Published on Mar 05 2019
    DEXA, or DXA stands for Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry. This painless, non-invasive procedure scans your body as you lie on a table and only requires a few specific pre-test conditions to ensure the highest accuracy and repeatability of subsequent testing (please go here for details). The DXA... Read More
  • What is Relative Energy Deficiency in Sports (RED-S) and do you have it?

  • Published on Mar 04 2019
    RED-S was previously known as the Female Athlete Triad, which Drinkwater et al. defined as ‘the combination of disordered eating and irregular menstrual cycles eventually leading to a decrease in endogenous estrogen and other hormones, resulting in low bone mineral density.” The diagram below is a... Read More
  • Extreme Exercise and Your Arteries: A Healthier Heart of Stone

  • Published on Feb 28 2019
    There is no denying the benefits of regular exercise on your cardiovascular health. Physical Activity Guidelines indicate that 150 minutes of moderately vigorous exercise per week can decrease risks for fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease 1. Although there is more concern regarding low... Read More
  • VO2 Max Test

  • Published on Feb 28 2019
    A VO2 max is the gold standard exercise test to determine your aerobic capacity. With Scottsdale Sports Medicine Institute’s on-site testing the test can be performed here at the fitness lab. For the test, the subject will breathe through a mouthpiece connected to a metabolic analyzer, and he/she... Read More
  • Wrist Pain? It May Not Be What You Thought!

  • Published on Feb 27 2019
    Due to its location and mechanism of action, the wrist joint is extremely vulnerable to injury, making it one of the most commonly injured joints in the body.  Most patients present to primary care or sports medicine clinics although the more serious fractures or breaks should be taken to the... Read More
  • Tele Sports Medicine

  • Published on Feb 27 2019
    Take Dr. Carfagno with you! SSMI is now offering a service for patients that can’t make it into the clinic but are wanting to have an appointment with Dr. Carfagno thru our telemedicine system.  The telemedicine system is HIPAA compliant, protecting patient information.  Patients can use the... Read More
  • The Truth About Adrenal Fatigue

  • Published on Feb 26 2019
    The term “adrenal fatigue” has gained popularity over the last two decades to explain symptoms that are seen in those who have been dealing with long-term physical or emotional stress1. The term originated from Dr. James Wilson, a chiropractor and naturopath and was used to explain the generalized... Read More
  • Pulmonary Function Testing

  • Published on Feb 26 2019
    Pulmonary Function Tests Pulmonary Function Tests (PFT) are a group of tests that measure how well your lungs work.   This includes how well you are able to breathe and how well your lungs are able to supply oxygen to the rest of your body. Your doctor may order these tests: if you are having... Read More
  • Cardiac Phase Four: Ongoing Conditioning

  • Published on Feb 25 2019
    Scottsdale Sports Medicine Institute (SSMI) lead by Dr. David Carfagno, D.O., C.A.Q.S.M. is here for you after Cardiac Phase 1, 2 & 3.  We want to keep you on track for your commitment to changing your health. SSMI has a six-week program will assist you to on build on your road to a healthy and... Read More
  • Can Probiotics Improve Athletic Performance?

  • Published on Feb 22 2019
    More than 100 trillion different microbes live in your gut. Gut microbiota (GM) is found mostly in the colon and consists of bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa. It is known that GM break down fiber, produces vitamin K, and aids in pathogen recognition. However, gut microbiota’s influence on... Read More
  • Stress Fracture - Not all back of the leg pains are hamstring strains

  • Published on Feb 21 2019
    Stress fracture of the Femoral Neck On MRI Many injuries can occur with athletes and those that take part in routine physical activity. The scariest of those injuries are the ones that present like a lesser version of what they are. A 13-year old soccer player was recently seen at SSMI for what was... Read More
  • SSMI Sports Physical

  • Published on Feb 21 2019
    If you are interested in this advanced physical built for an athlete then give us a call (480) 664-4615. #metabolictesting #fitnessforlife #annualexam #sportsmedicine #internalmed #vitals #musclemass #metabolism #aerobic #SSMI   At SSMI we have an annual exam with a lot of our patients known as... Read More
  • Wrist Pain from Repetitive Work in a Desk Worker

  • Published on Feb 20 2019
    In a technology ran world filled with smartphones and computers, it is not surprising that wrist pain is extremely common. Whether you are working behind a desk clicking your mouse all day, or just passing the time swiping through news stories on your phone, over use of wrist is bound to happen.... Read More
  • Yoga for Medicine

  • Published on Feb 20 2019
    Yoga for medicine is a modality that promotes deep muscle relaxation, reduces  joint pain, stretches the whole body and releases tight fascia. The personalized one on one or small group sessions are performed on a yoga mat and the individual is taken through a progression of yoga stretches while... Read More
  • SSMI Nutrition

  • Published on Feb 19 2019
    Looking to better eating habits? Want to increase energy by feeding the right fuel into your body? Scottsdale Sports Medicine Institute (SSMI) Nutrition is for you! Scottsdale Sports Medicine Institute under the director on David Carfagno, D.O., C.A.Q.S.M. has always been a leader in their... Read More
  • Sunday Funday Fitness

  • Published on Feb 18 2019
    Want an unconventional non-linear way to enjoy your Sunday wind down workout?  Consider a Route around your hood and beyond with stops for interval runs or walks along way to break it up. With a destination of fueling up for a finish area. In our case Sushi Brokers.  #fitnessmotivation #fitness #... Read More
  • Are you hip to arthritis and labral tears?

  • Published on Feb 15 2019
    The hip is one of the most dynamic joints in the body. Much like the shoulder joint, the hip grants us the ability to perform many different activities from simply getting out of a chair to more complex ones such as playing tennis or participating in ironman triathlons. In addition to the wide... Read More
  • Are Energy Drinks Safe for Athletes?

  • Published on Feb 14 2019
    The recent death of a teen due to caffeine-induced sudden cardiac death (SCD) raises concerns about the safety of caffeine use during exercise. Although millions of athletes consume energy drinks daily without adverse effects, there are rare cases in which caffeine causes heart problems and even... Read More
  • Are you at risk for a deep venous thrombosis after a big endurance race?

  • Published on Feb 13 2019
    Ever since the “first marathon” 2500 years ago in ancient Greece when Pheidippides completed his run to Athens and then died upon arrival, we worry about the chance of a catastrophic health event during intense competitions like marathons, triathlons and distance cycling. The most common cause of... Read More
  • Know Your NSAIDs

  • Published on Feb 13 2019
    Over the counter (OTC) pain medications or prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) medications are often the best first option that doctors advise patients to use when addressing acute, nonspecific pain issues, osteoarthritis, or musculoskeletal pain. Especially with the new research... Read More
  • SSMI Post Op Strength Training

  • Published on Feb 13 2019
    At SSMI we offer post-op training focused on individuals who have had major orthopedic surgeries and have finished PT, but may still feel uncomfortable with returning to normal activities. SSMI creates a bridge for the patient in order for them to gain more confidence before returning to the... Read More
  • Is your leg pain more than simple 'Sciatica'?

  • Published on Feb 12 2019
    Leg pain can have a number of different causes, some related to disease process and a lot to mechanical sources.  Among the most common mechanical reasons for pain is entrapment of the fifth lumbar (L5) nerve. Anatomy: The spinal cord puts out nerve branches that correspond to each bony vertebra.... Read More
  • Chronic Kidney Disease and the Athlete

  • Published on Feb 08 2019
    What is CKD? Chronic kidney disease (CKD) happens when the kidneys are damaged and can't clean the blood effectively. It can also affect the ability of the kidneys to help balance the body's fluids, control blood pressure, keep the bones strong, and make red blood cells. What causes CKD and... Read More
  • Athletes with high Blood Pressure; consider ARBs?

  • Published on Feb 07 2019
    The Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) is a peptidergic system that possesses endocrine characteristics. Renin is secreted by juxtaglomerular cells of the kidneys, mostly in response to reduced renal blood flow (Schleich, Smoot, & Erstnt, 2016). Sodium depletion and direct adrenergic stimulation... Read More
  • Resting EKG

  • Published on Feb 07 2019
    What Is an Electrocardiogram? An electrocardiogram, also called an EKG or ECG, is a simple, painless test that records the heart's electrical activity. To understand this test, it helps to understand how the heart works. With each heartbeat, an electrical signal spreads from the top of the heart to... Read More
  • Considering your first 5K, 10K, Marathon or Iron Man?

  • Published on Feb 06 2019
    Dr. Carfagno has years of experience as a medical director for both the Rock ‘N’ Roll Marathon races and Iron Man races has a few goals for his patients: 1) Safety first and foremost, 2) Avoiding the need for the medical tent on race day, 3) Enjoy the experience! With these goals in mind, Dr.... Read More
  • What a pain in the…Low Back!

  • Published on Feb 05 2019
    Do you suffer from low back pain? You are not alone. Low back pain is the number one cause of disability globally, with 84% of adults experiencing low back pain at some point in their lives. Certain lifestyle factors can be contributing risk factors for low back pain. These risk factors include... Read More
  • SSMI Stretch Therapy

  • Published on Feb 04 2019
        Are you feeling like you lack flexibility? Feel tight? Have trouble getting into certain positions? If you answered yes to any of these, you may benefit greatly from stretch therapy. Stretching has been shown to greatly improve range of motion and can even help prevent injury in some cases (... Read More
  • Exercise Induced Headaches

  • Published on Feb 01 2019
    If you are an athlete that commonly experiences headaches during or after sustained, strenuous exercise you may have what is called exercise-induced headaches, or exertional headaches. Exertional headaches can be either secondary, meaning caused by some other underlying disorder, or primary, where... Read More
  • How do we treat bronchitis and pneumonia in the athlete?

  • Published on Jan 31 2019
    Respiratory tract infections are the most common types of illness affecting athletes. Pathogenic organisms (viruses, bacteria, fungus) can colonize any portion of the respiratory tract causing a range of nonspecific symptoms, from mild nasal congestion to serious systemic illness. If severe enough... Read More
  • Musculoskeletal Ultrasound

  • Published on Jan 31 2019
    Shoulder bursitis.   Ultrasound images are typically used to help diagnose: tendon tears, or tendinitis of the rotator cuff in the shoulder, Achilles tendon in the ankle and other tendons throughout the body. muscle tears, masses or fluid collections. ligament sprains or tears. inflammation or... Read More
  • Should I still pay attention to the RDA on food labels?

  • Published on Jan 29 2019
    In the 1940's the Recommended Dietary Allowance guidelines were made to help the population meet the minimum food requirements for health.  Since then, the guidelines have been revised, and hundreds of research articles are published every year on nutrition and sports medicine.   Current... Read More
  • SpectraCell Micronutrient Testing

  • Published on Jan 29 2019
    SpectraCell Laboratories, Inc., is a specialized clinical testing laboratory company. We were established in 1993 to commercialize a patented, groundbreaking technology for micronutrient testing.  The technology was developed at the University of Texas, by the Clayton Foundation for Research, as a... Read More
  • Are You Getting Enough Protein?

  • Published on Jan 25 2019
    There are a lot of myths surrounding what is the right amount of protein to include in your diet.  Unless you are vegan or vegetarian, odds are you probably have more than enough protein from consuming a well-rounded diet.  The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for protein in males and females... Read More
  • Fitness Testing

  • Published on Jan 25 2019
    From the classroom to the boardroom, the Scottsdale Sports Medicine Institute offers an array of fitness tests for every level of athlete.  But why is fitness testing important? The major reason is to get an accurate and holistic picture of your body as a performance machine, and then to establish... Read More
  • Runners versus Vegans. Who’s got healthier arteries?

  • Published on Jan 24 2019
    According to the most rigorous analysis of risk factors ever published, The Global Burden of Disease Study funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the number one cause of disability is America is now our diet, bumping cigarette smoking to number two.1 Since the Standard American Diet... Read More
  • Cardiac Stress Testing

  • Published on Jan 24 2019
    What Is an Exercise Stress Test? The exercise stress test -- also called a stress test, exercise electrocardiogram, treadmill test, graded exercise test, or stress ECG -- is used to provide information about how the heart responds to exertion. It usually involves walking on a treadmill or pedaling... Read More
  • I injured my calf...

  • Published on Jan 23 2019
    “Tennis leg” is a common acute mid-calf injury often seen in middle-aged tennis players and runners. The pain is usually caused by an incomplete rupture of the medial (inside) gastrocnemius (calf) muscle. This injury often occurs during a sudden contraction of the calf muscles while the knee is... Read More
  • Breathe easier with rib treatment!

  • Published on Jan 22 2019
    During the past few weeks, we have seen and treated many different rib dysfunctions in the office. So, it seemed like the perfect time to discuss how rib dysfunctions occur and how we treat them in the office. Rib dysfunctions can result from many different situations. Patients with chronic asthma... Read More
  • Baker's Cysts

  • Published on Jan 16 2019
    Did you ever feel a lump or fullness in the backside of your leg behind the knee? This might be what is called a Baker’s cyst or popliteal synovial cyst. A Baker’s cyst is an accumulation of joint fluid that creates a fluid-filled sac behind the knee. The cyst can gradually expand, due to a one-... Read More
  • Dizziness in Elderly Athlete

  • Published on Jan 15 2019
      Have you started feeling dizzy?   We recently had a patient who started feeling dizzy, and nothing seemed to help. After seeing multiple doctors, he had an MRI which showed enlarged fluid-filled spaces in the brain. This led to the diagnosis of normal pressure hydrocephalus or NPH.  NPH... Read More
  • Blood Flow Restriction Training

  • Published on Jan 14 2019
    Blood Flow Restriction Training (BFR), also known as occlusion, is a low-load exercise training method that involves the restriction of blood flow to the muscles. BFR is an effective training method because it maximizes muscle hypertrophy while tissue load capacity is limited/low. This can be... Read More
  • Pre Surgical Clearances

  • Published on Jan 14 2019
    Surgical procedures increase the physical exertion faced by the body during and after the intervention. Patients undergoing surgery are therefore first 'risk stratified' by doctors for chances of developing any complications that may affect recovery during or after surgery. A person's exercise... Read More
  • Endurance Coaching

  • Published on Jan 08 2019
    General Health/Fitness Are you looking to lose weight in the New Year? It can be really tough to exercise when the excitement of the New Year fades and your motivation is dwindling, but YOU can be successful! And research shows you are much more likely to stick to your goals  if you work... Read More
  • Medical Metabolic Program

  • Published on Jan 04 2019
     If you are interested in learning more information about the SSMI medical metabolic program please call 480-664-4615 #BeastMode#TransformationThursday #WeightLossJourney #FitnessForLife#ScottsdaleSportsMedicine #Scottsdale The roots of the program date back to 1986.  I was a sophomore at Arizona... Read More
  • Resting Metabolic Rate

  • Published on Jan 03 2019
    This simple yet powerful 10-20 minute breath test determines how much energy (calories) you burn in a day at rest.  You simply sit back, relax and breathe.  During the test, the air you breathe in and out is analyzed for how much oxygen your body uses to maintain basic life functions.  Once... Read More
  • SSMI New Year's resolution

  • Published on Dec 27 2018
    We are heading into another New Year and I’m sure you have plenty of resolutions you want to accomplish. The team at SSMI is here to help with any of your health and fitness resolutions you may have. Whether it is weight loss, weight gain, performance-based, we are here to help you achieve it. We... Read More
  • Adhesive Capsulitis

  • Published on Dec 17 2018
    Shoulder injuries are extremely common in active men in their 5th and 6th decades. Activities like golfing and swimming make these injuries even more prevalent, but the common misconception with shoulder injuries is “it has to be rotator cuff related” and the truth of the matter is, no it does not... Read More
  • Saturday Night Palsy

  • Published on Dec 13 2018
    This time of year is party season! Who doesn’t have a Christmas party, ugly sweater party, New Year’s celebration? All the more reason to be aware of an interesting condition called Saturday night palsy (also known as honeymooner’s palsy, or radial nerve compression). So what’s the connection with... Read More
  • Shin Splints

  • Published on Dec 05 2018
    Nothing is worse than finally feeling like you are making the effort to get active and start running when BOOM! shin pain strikes , and takes you out of commission faster than you started. Shin splints or medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a very common injury in those taking part in... Read More
  • Pes Anserinus Pain Syndrome (PAPS)

  • Published on Nov 29 2018
    Having knee pain? You may be experiencing a condition called pes anserine bursitis or pes anserinus pain syndrome (PAPS). PAPS is a condition that causes medial knee pain and tenderness over the upper medial tibia at the bursae, a synovial lined capsule that facilitates connection between tendon... Read More
  • Plantar Fasciitis and heel pain

  • Published on Nov 26 2018
    Do you have heel pain? You may be dealing with the most common heel condition present in adults, plantar fasciitis. What is plantar fasciitis? Plantar fasciitis is a degenerative change in the plantar fascia (a fine sheath of fibrous tissue connected to the inner portion of the heel). This usually... Read More
  • All about the IT band

  • Published on Nov 20 2018
    The iliotibial band is a tract of fibrous tissue running down the outside of the leg from the iliac crest (pelvis) to Gerdy’s tubercle on the tibia (knee). Multiple muscles attach to it, including the tensor fascia lata and the gluteus maximus. Because it crosses two joints, it helps with both hip... Read More
  • It’s Not Always Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

  • Published on Nov 13 2018
    Do you struggle with wrist pain? People often think they have carpal tunnel syndrome, however that is only one of many possibilities. Carpal tunnel syndrome is a specific condition that occurs when there is compression of the median nerve as it courses through the carpal tunnel in the wrist. This... Read More
  • OMT at SSMI

  • Published on Nov 08 2018
    #MyofascialRelease #Counterstrain #OsteopathicManipulation#Osteopathy #SportsMedicine#InternalMedicine #HyperVolt One of many services and treatment modalities Dr. Carfagno and his team offer for all types of sports injuries in elements. Call the office for a consultation to see if you are a... Read More
  • Lumbar Radiculopathy and Denervation Atrophy

  • Published on Nov 05 2018
    Have you ever noticed that one of your legs is smaller than the other? Or maybe the muscles in one leg aren’t as strong as the other side? This could actually be due to a nerve problem in your back called “lumbosacral radiculopathy” which leads to “denervation atrophy” of your leg muscles. This... Read More
  • Popliteus Tendinopathy

  • Published on Nov 01 2018
    Are you a runner training for a marathon and hurt yourself running on the hills? Are you a baseball catcher whose knee hurts after you stood up after a long day of practice? Don’t try to tough it out, there is a chance that you could have injured your popliteus! The popliteus is a small muscle... Read More
  • Labral Tears in the Shoulder

  • Published on Oct 24 2018
    A common cause of shoulder joint instability is injury to the superior labrum. The labrum forms a fibrous ring that helps widen the surface of the glenohumeral joint in which the head of the humerus articulates. SLAP (Superior Labrum Anterior and Posterior) injuries can result from sudden injuries... Read More
  • I have a meniscus tear... Do I need surgery?

  • Published on Oct 24 2018
      What is a Meniscus? A meniscus is a crescent shaped disk that’s found in the knee. It functions as a shock absorber or cushion between the femur (thighbone) and the tibia (shinbone). It helps with knee stability, lubrication, proprioception, and congruity. Each knee has 2 menisci—one on... Read More
  • Hip Flexor Series Part 1: Assessing for Tightness

  • Published on Sep 17 2018
    The hip flexors are a group of muscles that act to flex the femur at the hip joint.  The primary movers are the rectus femoris and iliopsoas.  The pectineus, sartorious and hip adductors also assist in the action of hip flexion.  An easy way to visualize this action is bringing the knee towards the... Read More
  • Can Probiotics Improve Athletic Performance?

  • Published on Sep 13 2018
    More than 100 trillion different microbes live in your gut. Gut microbiota (GM) is found mostly in the colon and consists of bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa. It is known that GM break down fiber, produces vitamin K, and aids in pathogen recognition. However, gut microbiota’s influence on... Read More
  • Trevor Miller

  • Published on Sep 13 2018
         Trevor is the Exercise Physiologist at the Scottsdale Sports Medicine Institute and takes care of the Metabolic programs. Trevor was born in San Diego, California but relocated to Arizona at a young age. He completed all his basic schooling in Arizona and recently finished with a degree in... Read More
  • Alex Edwards

  • Published on Mar 17 2018
      Experienced Exercise Physiologist with a demonstrated history of working in the medical practice industry. Skilled in coaching, strength and conditioning, weight-loss management, communication, and team Building. Strong community and social services professional working on a M.S. in Kinesiology... Read More
  • New Video: DEXA Body Composition Timelapse

  • Published on Jan 22 2018
    Get this year started right by tracking you body composition with the GOLD STANDARD measurement using the DEXA Body Composition scan.  Call today to schedule your appointment!   Here are some frequently asked questions about the scan: 1. As a physician, what does the body composition analysis by... Read More
  • Rock and Roll Marathon/Half Marathon/10k FREE RACE DAY VIP!!!

  • Published on Jan 08 2018
    Want to run the big Race this weekend? Dr Carfagno and Scottsdale Sports Medicine's Team in it's 8th year will be caring for the whole weekend's events on the course and the finish line.  We have many VIP passes to give away to our loyal clients and athletes. If you want a VIP pass and are an ... Read More
  • SSMI Launching Personal Training: First Session Free!

  • Published on Dec 19 2017
    We are launching out personal training here at SSMI with the introductory offer of one free session with the purchase of another session.  Great for all first-time exercisers or those with medical conditions and need some physician supervision.  Over 45 years of personal training experience among... Read More
  • Free Rock & Roll Half/Full Marathon VIP Wristband

  • Published on Dec 14 2017
    Christmas special from SSMI: the first athlete to call and schedule a DEXA body composition will receive a free VIP pass for the Rock and Roll marathon that includes free race admission to the half or full marathon, and access to all of the VIP sections at the expo and on race day.  In order claim... Read More
  • Managing a Medical Emergency at 35,000 feet

  • Published on Dec 06 2017
    I posted a few days ago about my experience on the way back from Kauai.  I had received a bottle of wine from American Airlines but I’m so proud of this experience I wanted to tell the story.  More so, in that I received a very nice thank you email.  It’s an email like this that makes my year.  I... Read More
  • Hip Flexor Series Part 2: Passive Stretching

  • Published on Dec 04 2017
    In part two of our hip flexor series, we will discuss some stretching techniques to help lengthen tight hip flexors.  A quick review of hip flexor anatomy will help understand how to make stretching more effective.  The three main muscles responsible for hip flexion are the iliacus, psoas major,... Read More
  • SSMI Now Offering Stretch Therapy!

  • Published on Nov 07 2017
    Are you always feeling tight, noticing limited range of motion, and looking to improve your flexibility? Scottsdale Sports Medicine Institute is proud to announce that we have added stretch therapy as part of our services.  Stretch therapy sessions can be booked for 15 or 30 minute sessions to fit... Read More
  • Hamstring Flexibility Part 3: Eccentric Exercises

  • Published on Oct 31 2017
    Part 1 and 2 of our hamstring series focused on assessing flexibility and passive stretches for the hamstring.  Part 3 of this series will focus on some strength exercises with an eccentric emphasis that will improve hamstring mobility.  The eccentric phase of a movement involves a muscle... Read More
  • Welcome Dr. Johnson to Scottsdale Sports Medicine!!

  • Published on Oct 19 2017
    Welcome, Dr. Johnson, to Scottsdale Sports Medicine!  We are happy to announce that Dr. Eric Johnson, PhD, has just recently joined us here in our office.   Dr. Eric Johnson is clinically trained as a Neuropsychologist and has treated ages 10-100.  He specializes in utilizing the ImPACT computer... Read More

  • Published on Oct 12 2017
    This is not a TRICK!  We have a real TREAT for you!  Come in to Scottsdale Sports Medicine Institute before HALLOWEEN to receive 20% off all Metabolic Testing to include a VO2 Max Exercise Test an RMR and a DEXA Scan Body Composition Test.  This deal is too SCARY to pass up!  What are you waiting... Read More
  • Hamstring Flexibility Part 2: Passive Stretching

  • Published on Oct 09 2017
    Part 1 of our hamstring flexibility series looked at how to assess for hamstring flexibility using the active straight leg raise.  This week, we will focus on passive stretching to increase hamstring flexibility.  Flexibility can be thought of as the useable range of motion for a given joint and... Read More
  • Hamstring Flexibility Part 1: Active Straight Leg Test

  • Published on Oct 04 2017
    Do you have tight hamstrings? The active straight leg test is a simple test you can use to test for hamstring flexibility.  All you need for this test is a partner and a PVC pipe or dowel to check the position of the leg.  You can follow these easy steps below and watch our video for a... Read More
  • Exercise Progression for the Rotational Core

  • Published on Sep 26 2017
    Any fitness enthusiast would agree that the trunk muscles are important for posture and performance.  However, there is a large discrepancy on what exercises work the best for training the core.  Functional analysis of the core starts with stabilization.  This explains why posture is such an... Read More
  • Testosterone Replacement for the Aging Athlete

  • Published on Sep 18 2017
    Testosterone (T) is a naturally occurring hormone that is responsible in part for gaining muscle mass and strength, increasing endurance and faster recovery from intense exercise, reducing body fat, promoting healthy bone density, and many other mental and sexual benefits. The psychological... Read More
  • New Video: SSMI Ankle Mobility Tips

  • Published on Sep 13 2017
    Ankle mobility is often an overlooked component of human movement that has a tremendous ability to help or hinder performance.  Most notably, good ankle mobility can help keep good form and posture during squats and olympic weightlifting movements.  Good ankle mobility can also help to prevent... Read More
  • I have a meniscus tear... Do I need surgery?

  • Published on Sep 10 2017
    What is a Meniscus? A meniscus is a crescent shaped disk that’s found in the knee. It functions as a shock absorber or cushion between the femur (thighbone) and the tibia (shinbone). It helps with knee stability, lubrication, proprioception, and congruity. Each knee has 2 menisci—one on the outer... Read More
  • DEXA Body Composition Frequently Asked Questions

  • Published on Sep 07 2017
      1. As a physician, what does the body composition analysis by DEXA tell you that the BMI and your own eyes do not? BMI is the minimum measurement for evaluating the overweight and obese patient, ultimately a reflection of body weight. Body weight is not nearly as important as the composition of... Read More
  • SSMI Shoulder Mobility Tips

  • Published on Aug 29 2017
    Shoulder mobility is one of the keys to maintaining healthy shoulders.  Mobility differs from flexiblity because it is the useable range of motion.  Shoulder mobility is important for elite athletes performing overhead movements as well as the aging population being able to reach above head.  Here... Read More
  • When Inner Thigh Pain Isn't a Groin Injury...

  • Published on Aug 28 2017
      Inner thigh or groin pain can cause discomfort on the inside of your leg that can be felt from the groin and all the way down to the knee. This type of injury is common in sports involving rapid acceleration, deceleration, and with rapid change in direction such as soccer, basketball, football,... Read More
  • Welcome Dr Jones to Scottsdale Sports Medicine Institute!

  • Published on Aug 07 2017
    We are happy to announce that a new doctor has just recently joined us here in our office.  He looks forward to meeting each of you when you stop by and is available now to see patients! Dr. Jones grew up in the area of Pittsburgh, PA. He graduated with honors from Carnegie Mellon University with a... Read More
  • Strength Training for Endurance Athletes

  • Published on Jul 31 2017
    Endurance athletes are always looking to improve their performance, and there is a lot of research that supports cardiovascular training adaptations with regards to fitness and health.  A common exercise myth is the idea that strength training would impede an endurance athlete’s ability to compete... Read More
  • Resistance Training 201: Periodization for Long Term Progress

  • Published on Jul 19 2017
    Planning exercise and physical activity is an important skill to understand for athletes, coaches, and health care professionals alike.  Having a well-rounded program provides the athlete with “what to do,” but the program design can often answer the “why to do,” help direct goals and establish a... Read More
  • Are You on the Edge of Over Training?

  • Published on Jul 12 2017
    High intensity levels or large training volumes are often required for athletes to achieve gains in performance. However, training at high intensity increases the risk for injury and fatigue due to overtraining.  Proper training requires a balance between overload and recovery. Inadequate rest and... Read More
  • Is it Okay to Foam Roll the IT Band?

  • Published on Jul 06 2017
    Iliotibial band (ITB) foam rolling has become a controversial topic that has garnered much debate recently. The short answer, yes you can roll the IT band!  However, there are a few key points to make your foam rolling more effective.  Understanding the basic anatomy and function of the ITB can... Read More
  • The Biomechanics of Shoulder Impingement

  • Published on Jun 26 2017
    The glenohumeral joint (shoulder joint) is the most moveable joint in the body. This is partially due to its shape. The head of the humerus (upper arm bone) is shaped like a ball that fits into a socket on the end of the scapula called the glenoid fossa. This joint works similar to the way a pestle... Read More
  • Managing Hypertension in Athletes

  • Published on Jun 06 2017
    Hypertension (HTN), or high blood pressure, is the most prevalent cardiovascular disease among athletes. HTN is divided into three classifications. Prehypertension is a bloods pressure over 120/80 but less than 140/90. Stage 1 HTN is a blood pressure of 140/90 to 160/100. Stage 2 HTN is a blood... Read More
  • When Rest Isn't Best

  • Published on Jun 01 2017
    Rest, icing, compression, and elevation (RICE) are commonly recommended for sports injuries such as strains, sprains, stress fractures, plantar fasciitis, patellofemoral disorder, or IT band syndrome. However, prolonged rest results in rapid deconditioning and can lead to a cycle of chronic injury... Read More
  • Flexibility Series: Upper Body TRX Warm Up

  • Published on May 03 2017
    This week’s topic is a TRX upper body warm up circuit to help prepare you for your upper body workouts.  Dynamic warm ups are excellent movement prep for your workouts, especially when they include movements you plan to include in the given exercise session.  As mentioned in our Flexibility 101... Read More
  • To Track or Not Track? Accuracy of Using Fitness Trackers

  • Published on Apr 17 2017
    Technology has added tremendous benefit to our understanding of exercise adaptation and has become widely available and heavily used to track fitness.  Wearable technology was named the top trend in fitness according to a survey published in the American College of Sports Medicine’s Health and... Read More
  • Resting Metabolic Rate: Understanding Energy Expenditure

  • Published on Apr 05 2017
    Weight management is a multi-billion-dollar industry that brings has brought out a lot of fad diets, supplements, “secret tricks”, and conflicting do’s and don’ts. Trying to get down to the brass tacks on what works and what doesn’t can be a daunting task leaving individuals confused and... Read More
  • Backpacker's/ Purse Hip

  • Published on Mar 29 2017
    Lately, I've been seeing a considerable amount of lateral hip pain.  Specifically off the iliac crest, the edge of the hip on your side.  As seen on the video, there are a number of attachments of muscles onto the iliac crest which span from the large muscles like the latissimus dorsi and erector... Read More
  • Group Wellness Update

  • Published on Mar 23 2017
    Group Wellness at SSMI Focus Groups Scottsdale Sports Medicine offers individualized focus groups on Monday evenings once a month.  During the group meetings, we will discuss specific medical conditions and focus on living healthier lifestyles geared toward your specific needs.  Healthy lifestyle... Read More
  • Phoenix Magazine's 2017 Top Doc!

  • Published on Mar 16 2017
    Scottsdale Sports Medicine Institute is proud to announce that Dr. Carfagno has been selected by his peers and colleagues as top sports medicine doctor as well as Internist in this month's Phoenix Magazine!  This makes the 8th year in a row that he has been voted for this honor and Sports Medicine... Read More
  • Open House at SSMI!!!

  • Published on Mar 15 2017
    Scottsdale Sports Medicine Institute & Me by Michelle Please join us for our Open House Thursday March 30 5:30-8:00 pm *Door Prizes and Raffles* Me By Michelle Specials 25% OFF All Skin Care Products (Obagi, SkinBetter Science & Jan Marini) $9.50 per unit Botox, $8.50/Xeomin $399 for... Read More
  • Flexibility 101: Improving Range of Motion

  • Published on Mar 14 2017
    You’ve probably heard the adage “if you don’t use it, you lose it.” This fundamental truth can absolutely be applied to flexibility.  Flexibility is a key component to a balanced training regimen but can often go unnoticed or even forgotten.  Most people might be under the impression that... Read More
  • Break It Up! Using Unilateral Exercises To Improve Balance

  • Published on Mar 07 2017
    Last week in our Resistance Training 102 article we mentioned different types of equipment and how they can improve strength, balance, coordination and nervous system function.  Today we are going to build off the same principles and expound on why unilateral exercises should be incorporated as... Read More
  • Resistance Training 102: Different Modalities for Different Results

  • Published on Feb 28 2017
    If you have been following our posts, you know that we love prescribing resistance training to almost everyone that walks through our doors.  There are many ways that resistance training can be an effective treatment.  Health benefits include improved coordination, balance, stability, strength,... Read More
  • Resistance Training 101: How lifting weights can improve your health

  • Published on Feb 10 2017
    American society has been accustomed to trust Doctors and allied health care professionals to prescribe medication and treatment plans.  Common connotation might suggest that pills and surgery are the first thingthat pops into our minds when talking about western medicine.  While these treatments... Read More
  • SMR 101: A Beginners Guide to Foam Rolling

  • Published on Feb 06 2017
    Feeling tight? Unwind With These Self Myofascial Release Tips... Foam rolling, massage sticks, and many other tools have gained a lot of admiration in fitness and wellness circles for their ability to help relieve muscle soreness and improve flexibility.  There are a lot of tools out there that aim... Read More
  • New Video: Overview of Metabolic Testing at SSMI

  • Published on Jan 30 2017
    Scottsdale Sports Medicine Institute takes great pride in the on-site metabolic lab Dr. Carfagno has created.  If you have followed any of our social media or have visited our office you have probably been exposed to some of the metabolic testing we offer at our office. In the past we have uploaded... Read More
  • Win a Rock and Roll Arizona Free VIP Entry

  • Published on Jan 09 2017
    Want to win a free VIP Race Entry into this Sunday's Rock and Roll Marathon/Half Marathon?   To Win, the first 4 runners to show up at Scottsdale Sports Medicine this week, Like our page and Check in on Facebook will win an entry!!! Dr Carfagno of Scottsdale Sport Medicine is the Medical Director... Read More

  • Published on Dec 20 2016
    Group Wellness at SSMI Focus Groups Scottsdale Sports Medicine offers individualized focus groups on Friday mornings from 10:00 am to 11:00 am.  During the group meetings, we will discuss specific medical conditions and focus on living healthier lifestyles geared toward your specific needs. ... Read More
  • Short On Time For Exercise? Try This Kettlebell Circuit!

  • Published on Dec 15 2016
    With the holiday season in full swing, it can be hard to make time to exercise.  With busy work, family and personal schedules, exercise falls low on our list of priorities.  DON'T LET THIS BE AN EXCUSE!  Short bouts of high intensity exercise can be just as if not more effective at maintaining... Read More
  • New Soft Tissue Therapy Coming To SSMI!

  • Published on Nov 30 2016
    At SSMI we pride ourselves with providing patients with the highest quality treament that ensures safety and effectiveness.  We are excited to announce the addition of Extracorporeal Softwave Therapy (ESWT) as a part of our practice.   So what is ESWT?  This non-invasive procedure involves... Read More
  • Athletes: Can You Benefit From Training in Flagstaff?

  • Published on Nov 21 2016
    Does it help athletes to train in Flagstaff at a high-altitude?  The answer to this question is yes, but only if the training is done correctly.Athletic performance at low-altitudes can be greatly improved when one attains the physiological effects from adjusting to training at high-altitudes.  One... Read More
  • Beat The Bulk With These Thanksgiving Tips!

  • Published on Nov 21 2016
      With Thanksgiving here to kick off the holiday season, we wanted to give some ideas how to enjoy the holidays without over indulging.  Food is a strong part of the holiday culture that brings us together to celebrate. It wouldn’t be realistic to say that you should avoid temptation at all cost. ... Read More
  • Tips on Injury Prevention and Walking your Dog

  • Published on Nov 17 2016
    At SSMI we love dogs as much as we love keeping you healthy and injury free!  Here's a short video with some of Dr. Carfagno's top tips to prevent injury while walking your dog. As a sports medicine clinic, we see the effects of repetitive stress placed on the musculoskeletal system.  More often... Read More
  • What is your fluid and salt intake?

  • Published on Nov 16 2016
    The Rock ‘n’ Roll Marathon in Vegas was this past weekend, and with thousands of athletes taking part in the 10k and half marathon, dehydration was a common problem seen by Dr Carfagno and his medical team. As all athletes know, maintaining the balance between fluid hydration and salt intake is... Read More
  • I’m sick. Can’t I just take an antibiotic?

  • Published on Nov 09 2016
    The holiday season has just begun, with tasty foods, festive music and cooler temperatures, welcome to peak cold and flu season! So, how do you know if you have a cold or the flu? And once you are sick, why can’t you just take an antibiotic to get better?A common cold or the flu?Rhinovirus, also... Read More
  • Group Wellness: Diabetes - November 18

  • Published on Nov 07 2016
    Group Wellness at SSMI Friday, November 18 From 9:00am to 10:00am   Diabetes Our wellness group on diabetes will focus on: The Insulin-like Effects of Exercise Resistance Training Techniques Cardio Activities Healthy Food Choices Concerns about your Diabetes   *Some insurances pay for the... Read More
  • Group Wellness: Diabetes - November 18

  • Published on Nov 07 2016
    Group Wellness at SSMIFriday, November 18From 9:00am to 10:00am Diabetes Our wellness group on diabetes will focus on:The Insulin-like Effects of ExerciseResistance Training TechniquesCardio ActivitiesHealthy Food ChoicesConcerns about your Diabetes *Some insurances pay for the sessions.Space is... Read More
  • Squat Series: Kettlebell Goblet Squat

  • Published on Nov 03 2016
    Squats are one of the best movements in any resistance training program because they target a powerhouse combination of muscles.  The prime movers are the glutes, quadriceps, and calves as they act on the hip, knees and ankles.  In strength and conditioning circles this is reffered to the triple... Read More
  • Keeping Your Heart Healthy With Exercise

  • Published on Oct 31 2016
    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) isn’t just an important indicator for endurance athletes, it is also a biomarker for cardiovascular risk factors.  Individuals with low fitness levels are more likely to have a higher waist circumference, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and pre-diabetes.  It should be... Read More
  • DEXA Body Composition: The Gold Standard

  • Published on Oct 27 2016
    The DEXA is most commonly used for bone density scans, but it is also able to provide the most accurate measurement for body fat percentage! Using a low dosage of X-ray, we are able to determine exactly how much fat, muscle and bone mass you are composed of.  This 3 component model of body... Read More
  • My doctor says I have a bulging disc in my back, what can I do?

  • Published on Oct 24 2016
    Back pain is one of the most common types of pain that people chronically experience and one of the most common reasons someone comes into Scottsdale Sports Medicine Institute. As frustrating as the pain is, people often get more frustrated with wide range of terms used to describe spinal disc... Read More
  • Your back of the knee pain might be a Baker’s cyst

  • Published on Oct 24 2016
    Back of the knee pain can be caused by a range of conditions. An acute injury or slow chronic onset can help determine the cause and treatment of the pain. One of the most common causes of back of the knee pain is due to inflammation of the popliteal bursa. When this occurs, the condition is... Read More
  • Now Offering Exercise Consults!

  • Published on Oct 24 2016
    SSMI is proud to announce we are now offering exercise consults with our exercise physiologist on staff!!  This is a 30 minute appointment aimed at prescribing an individualized exercise program based on your current fitness level, goals and needs.  Common interests include weight loss, increased... Read More
  • Whatever your Arena is, give it your all...

  • Published on Oct 11 2016
    Dr Carfagno's mantra in his medical practice is literally being in the Arena, arena of life.  Since fellowship at Cleveland Clinic, he stumbled upon the Arena Quote by Teddy Roosevelt which exemplifies living life to the fullest without hesitation and giving it your all, whether you win or lose,... Read More
  • If you have low back pain, yoga might help!

  • Published on Oct 03 2016
    Recent research about the health benefits of yoga might encourage you to add it to your daily routine, especially if you have chronic low back pain. Yoga has long been used as a staple of natural health and wellness, and is now recognized for other potential health benefits. It has been proven that... Read More
  • Wednesday Night Clinic Hours now open!!!

  • Published on Sep 07 2016
    Staring tonight, Scottsdale Sports Medicine has opened up its Wednesday evening clinic from 6 pm to 9 pm!! Accommodating patients and adding convenience for those who don't have to take off work or school.  
  • Do you have foot and heel pain?

  • Published on Sep 07 2016
    Case: A 45 year old female complaining of right heel pain came into Scottsdale Sports Medicine last week. The pain began several months ago, and was primarily located on her right heel and radiated throughout the bottom of her foot. She described the pain as sharp, present within the first few... Read More
  • Fun Facts: Cardiovascular Physiology in Exercise

  • Published on Sep 06 2016
    Exercise PhysiologyDuring exercise there are a wide range of metabolic demands put on the body, especially with endurance activities.  Endurance exercises place demands on the heart and blood vessels to deliver oxygen, remove carbon dioxide, and dissipate heat from the muscles.  The primary purpose... Read More
  • Does your Hip have a painful snap or pop?

  • Published on Aug 30 2016
    Case: 15 year old athletic male presenting with complaints of right hip pain. The onset of pain occurred for several weeks without an acute injury. Located in the right anterior aspect of the hip and radiating towards the groin, the pain described ranging from dull to sharp was consistent... Read More
  • Cyclists: What You Need to Know About Ulnar Tunnel Syndrome

  • Published on Aug 23 2016
    What is Ulnar Tunnel Syndrome?Ulnar Tunnel Syndrome (also referred to as Handlebar Palsy) is caused from compression to the distal ulnar nerve.   Ulnar Tunnel Syndrome results in faintness of ones grip, pain/tenderness in the Guyon’s canal, and possible numbness and/or tingling in the hand.  If you... Read More
  • Winning Nutrition: Dietary Needs of Elite Rowers

  • Published on Aug 22 2016
    The sport of rowing presents unique set of exercise demands on an individual.  It is typically considered a power sport, however endurance is equally important.  A rower must have enough strength and power to push the pace as well as endurance to keep them from burning out before the finish line. ... Read More
  • Studies Show Physical Activity After Mental Studies Prevents Overeating

  • Published on Aug 16 2016
    A new study shows that strenuous mental work can lead to overeating.  When we engage our brains in mentally challenging tasks, the brain localizes glucose/glycogen accessibility.  As a result, we feel hungry and have a chance of eating more after strenuous mental work.  However, exercising after... Read More
  • Vegans: Does Your Diet Support Your Athletic Performance?

  • Published on Aug 09 2016
    With top-notch athletic performance comes healthy nutrition.  Athletes may be very conscious of their nutrition, but does the diet of a vegan support athletic performance?Although meat may be a primary source of protein for many of those who are not on a vegan diet, vegans can get their proteins... Read More
  • Are You Racing Towards a Fracture?

  • Published on Jul 29 2016
    Cardiorespiratory fitness is a critical component of an athlete’s health and performance.  There are numerous physical and psychological benefits to aerobic training.  Just ask any endurance athlete how their training makes them feel and they would give a list of reasons everyone should train for... Read More
  • Running BioMechanics Part I

  • Published on Jun 02 2016
    Often many athletes and recreational folks present with chronic orthopedic injuries to the clinic.  Many of these I like to evaluate with Gait Analysis to see their whole body in motion as it complements the evaluation process that may lead to contribute to the diagnosis.  It certainly falls into... Read More
  • When Should You Worry About Overtraining?

  • Published on May 18 2016
    Training is something that every athlete is concerned about. Getting in enough workouts and ensuring peak performance. Athletes worry about ensuring they get enough cardio and enough strength training, but when does enough become too much. Over-Training Syndrome (OTS) is a constellation of problems... Read More
  • A commonly missed cause of knee pain: pes anserine bursitis

  • Published on Apr 10 2016
    Pes anserine is actually french, and translated it means “goose foot”. It is a triangular (think of the shape of a goose foot) area on the anteromedial aspect of the knee 1-4 cm below the medial joint line where three different muscles insert.  From anterodistal to posteroproximal the order of... Read More
  • Living with Scoliosis: How to Manage the Pain and Progression

  • Published on Mar 29 2016
    Scoliosis is an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.  In order to determine the severity of the curvature, a standing AP x-ray is used to determine the Cobb angle.  This angle is calculated by drawing two lines and measuring the angle at which they intersect as see in the picture. This... Read More
  • Your VO2Max and Why It’s Not Only for Elite Athletes

  • Published on Mar 23 2016
    So what is VO2Max? This value is the maximum oxygen uptake an individual utilizes during maximal exercise and it reflects the amount and ability of an individual to bring in, transport, and utilize oxygen in the body tissues. This therefore is measuring the individuals’ functional aerobic capacity... Read More
  • Meldonium, What was a Tennis Star, Maria S actually taking?

  • Published on Mar 13 2016
    Mildronate was originally developed in the 1970’s in Latvia as a growth-promoting agent in animals. More recently it was discovered that it is also an anti-ischemic (prevent loss of blood flow) medication, which has cardioprotective effects. It has also been used for the treatment of... Read More
  • Is it Just the Shin Splints or Something More Serious?

  • Published on Mar 13 2016
    Most individuals who exercise have likely experienced the shin splints, in medical terms referred to as Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome (MTSS), at some point in their lives. MTSS is an inflammatory response of the connective tissues of the lower leg that occur due to repetitive loading, like what... Read More
  • I Barely Have Time to Exercise, What is an Efficient Way to Use My Time?!

  • Published on Mar 10 2016
    The American Heart Association (AHA) and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) agree in their recommendations for the amount of physical activity that adults should obtain. These activity levels can help to prevent heart disease and stroke, the Nation's Number 1 and Number 5 causes of... Read More
  • Should You Continue to Exercise or Rest When You are Sick?

  • Published on Mar 09 2016
    IntroductionThis is a very common question many athletes are faced with during periods when they become ill. Most are unsure if they should work through the pain to continue their training, or if they should take some, potentially valuable, time off. Part of this doubt may be that physically active... Read More
  • Why having Heart Failure does NOT mean you have to stop being Active

  • Published on Mar 08 2016
    Heart Failure is a relatively common condition, with around 5 million Americans currently living with it. And about 550,000 more people are diagnosed with Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction (HFrEF) each year. It disproportionately affects older individuals, with over 5% of the population... Read More
  • When may your thigh pain be something to be more concerned about?

  • Published on Mar 07 2016
    Injuries to the legs are common among athletes and active individuals and most problems seem to be of little concern for the majority of people. This is justly so, as most conditions resolve on their own and do not warrant further attention. However, sometimes leg injuries may seem to be more... Read More
  • Caffeine: Can it help you achieve your best athletic performance?

  • Published on Mar 07 2016
    Caffeine is the most consumed stimulant, which is socially acceptable in the world, with approximately 90% of the adult population consuming caffeine each day. It is rapidly absorbed through the gastoinestinal tract into the bloodstream, reaching peak concentrations in approximately one hour.... Read More
  • Gentlemen! How well do YOU know your testicles?!

  • Published on Mar 02 2016
    No man thinks this can happen to him, but could this be testicular cancer?Testicular Cancer is the most common malignancy (aka cancer) in men of ages 15-34; and is responsible for approximately 1% of all cancers in men. It is estimated that roughly 8,500 new cases of Testicular Cancer will be... Read More
  • What does Wellness mean at SSMI?

  • Published on Feb 25 2016
    At SSMI, we have a wellness exam for each patient.  From the Executive Wellness to the Medicare Wellness to a general wellness exam, one must find what is 'their' true defintion to their individual wellness. “Wellness is a multidimensional state of being describing the existence of positive... Read More
  • Vitamin D Deficiency in Arizona...Say What?

  • Published on Feb 22 2016
    What Is Vitamin D?          Vitamin D is an essential nutrient that plays a role in the balance of calcium and bone health in our body. It is a prohormone, or precursor of a hormone, that is made in the skin after the exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Vitamin D is derived from foods such as fatty... Read More
  • Athletes and Eating Disorders: What You Need To Know Now

  • Published on Feb 22 2016
    What Are Eating Disorders?              Eating disorders are characterized by the persistent disturbance of eating that impairs health or psychosocial functioning. The most common eating disorders that have the most damaging effects on the health and performance of athletes are anorexia nervosa and... Read More
  • Exercise as a Treatment for Osteoporosis

  • Published on Feb 22 2016
    Physicians are constantly encouraging their patients to exercise. We all know it helps our hearts, joints, and muscles. But can exercise really benefit someone with osteoporosis? Truth is, it can!Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by significant loss of bone mass, quality, and strength. It can... Read More
  • When Is Muscle Soreness Dangerous?

  • Published on Feb 17 2016
    All of us have felt sore after a workout. That soreness is generally a good sign that our workout was effective. But can soreness ever be dangerous? In some circumstances it can.Rhabdomyolosis is a serious medical condition that can be associated with sore muscles after exercise. It is important to... Read More
  • What is the Pain in the Back of my Shoulder?

  • Published on Feb 15 2016
    Your body is an intricate collection of tissues, each with a specific purpose and funciton. Pain, while an important sign of injury, does not necessarily tell a physicain what type of tissue is being affected. It could be very important to know whether the source of the pain is soft tissue (muscles... Read More
  • What it means when you tore a tendon on your body...

  • Published on Feb 10 2016
    We have all heard of someone straining their hamstring. We likely also know someone who has torn their rotator cuff. But what exactly are these injuries? And what should you know if you have been diagnosed with a similar injury? The answer can be found by beginning to understand the importance of... Read More
  • IT Band Syndrome

  • Published on Feb 09 2016
    What is the IT Band?The Iliotibial band (IT band) is a tendon that courses down the lateral side of the leg from the hip to the top of the shin. It stablizes the knee joint and assists in the last 5-10 degrees of knee extension. The IT band also aids with knee flexion beyond 30 degrees. What is IT... Read More
  • Herniated Discs in my Spine: When Can I Return to My Sport?

  • Published on Feb 04 2016
    Spinal cord injuries are common in athletes, especially those participating in contact sports. Thankfully the most severe and devastating spinal cord injuries are rare. There are, however, a variety of injuries that can affect you ability to return to your sport of choice. If you have been... Read More
  • Skier's Thumb: A Reason to Consider Snowboarding?

  • Published on Feb 02 2016
    What is Skier's Thumb?Skier's Thumb, also known as Gamekeeper's Thumb, refers to a tear of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) on the inside of the thumb. As the name suggests the injury is common in skiers. During a fall on the slopes the thumb can become jammed against the ski pole resulting in... Read More
  • What a Torn Meniscus in Your Knee May Mean for You

  • Published on Feb 01 2016
    It can ruin your weekend ski trip. It can disrupt an enjoyable pickup basketball game. It can even occur when you simply step off a curb wrong. An injury to the meniscus in your knee is generally very painful and can be accompanied by a "popping" sound, swelling, and joint locking or instability. ... Read More
  • Single Leg Squats: A Case of a Pain in the Butt

  • Published on Jan 26 2016
    Single Leg Squat vs Double Leg SquatSquats using one or two legs will offer training emphasis to different muscles. Squats in general offers excellent primary muscle training of the gluteus maximus and quadriceps and secondary muscle training of the erector spinae, transverse abdominus, gluteus... Read More
  • Sugar makes the world go round and get round...

  • Published on Jan 20 2016
    Sugar has a huge presence in our diet; it is a source of energy but also a enabler of potential health risks. In fact, there are actually different types of sugar molecules as well as alternatives that mimick sugar's sweet flavor. In this article, we will discuss the many types of sugars and... Read More
  • Osteitis Pubis: How muscle imbalance can make your pelvis ache!

  • Published on Jan 19 2016
    We recently encountered a young athletic male patient who came with pelvic pain mostly on his pubic bone without hearing any abnormal pop that started when he was training for an intense sport. After a thorough workup, we came to a diagnosis of Osteitis Pubis. In this article, we will discuss the... Read More
  • Testosterone Therapy: Do you really need it?

  • Published on Jan 13 2016
    A 2013 article published in JAMA stated that there has been a dramatic increase in inappropriate use of testosterone therapy in healthy middle-aged and older men. One possible reason for this is the rise in direct-to-consumer advertising encouraging the use of testosterone products for nonspecific... Read More
  • Brain Tumors: It's in your head, literally

  • Published on Jan 11 2016
    What exactly happened?It's not uncommon to encounter athletic patients in our clinic presenting with neurological symptoms. Head injuries can cause a variety of issues both short and long term. However, this case stands out due to the gradual and unique change in speech behavior, writing skills,... Read More
  • Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) Therapy for Tendon Injuries

  • Published on Jan 04 2016
    Typically when we talk about platelets, we think of its effective ability to clot bleed. In recent years, scientific research has provided a new perspective on understanding the wound healing process and have learned that platelets also release many bioactive proteins responsible for attracting... Read More
  • Sickle Cell Disease and Trait in Athletes

  • Published on Dec 29 2015
    Making news last night in the world of sports medicine, an athlete recently diagnosed with sickle cell trait played in the city of Denver at high altitude.  Why did this make news? For years, many athletes from recreational to professional have deferred physical activity at high altitude for fear... Read More
  • How much protein should an athlete be having?

  • Published on Dec 17 2015
    Daily RequirementsThe recommended dietary allowance (RDA) is 0.8g/lb or 1.76g/kg of body weight daily. This is about 10-35% of the total energy that we consume. Most endurance athletes increase their protein intake to about 1.3g/lb or 2.86g/kg a day to support the balance of nitrogen. BCAA’s or... Read More
  • When elbow pain is more than just ‘Tennis elbow’…

  • Published on Oct 15 2015
    Lateral epicondylitis, often called “Tennis elbow” is a very common cause of elbow pain in amateur athletes.  It is a general overuse injury to the tendons that control wrist movement and occurs on the outside of the elbow.  Similar pain on the inside of the elbow is called medial epicondylitis or... Read More
  • Can you get sick from exercise?

  • Published on Oct 15 2015
    Common wisdom says that exercise is good for you in a lot of ways.  Medical research has shown that exercise improves the function of virtually every organ and system including immune performance. This most recent study confirms these general ideas, but adds a little nuance considering very intense... Read More
  • Will music be the key to unlocking Alzheimer's?

  • Published on Oct 07 2015
    Alzheimer’s disease is an irreversible degenerative disorder in which a specific type of plaque accumulates in the brain and leads to brain wasting, memory loss, and inability to function. This disease has devastating effects for the sufferers and for their families and current treatments remain... Read More
  • Lost your touch after a jammed finger?

  • Published on Oct 01 2015
    Virtually every child or adult athlete has experience with the exquisite pain that accompanies a ‘jammed finger’.  Most of the time a little RICE, Rest-Ice-Compression-Elevation, will treat the problem.  Sometimes, however, a finger can be truly dislocated in this type of injury. When that happens... Read More
  • Staying hydrated but still cramping?

  • Published on Sep 29 2015
    Staying hydrated but still cramping?Cramping is a bane of the endurance athlete and weekend warrior alike. It can ruin a record pace or be a painful end to your favorite activities.  Often simply staying hydrated and keeping your ‘electrolytes’ balanced is the best way to stop it, but if you’re... Read More
  • Should I worry about high blood pressure?

  • Published on Sep 29 2015
    Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is one of the major causes of death and disability today.. Though it is often initially asymptomatic, hypertension is implicated in significantly increased risks for stroke, heart attack, heart failure, aortic aneurysm, and kidney failure.  Minimizing these... Read More
  • No trauma to my Back? But now I have pain with walking!

  • Published on Sep 23 2015
    It's very common to see asymptomatic, bulging disc after the age of 30 and unlikely to cause spinal nerve root compression.  It's important to understand the difference between disc bulging versus disc herniation.  Bulging disc appears round and symmetrical compared to herniated disc, which appears... Read More
  • Are you a runner? No apparent injury but now you feel lower body pain?

  • Published on Sep 18 2015
    Overview: A retrospective survey of 2886 runners reported an overall injury rate of 46%. Injured runners were more likely to be male and to run six days per week and more than 30 miles each week.  No single reason have been given as the primary cause of these injuries; suggesting that many running... Read More
  • Is Arthritis causing havoc on your golf game?

  • Published on Sep 15 2015
    Overview: Osteoarthritis is the most common rheumatic disease, a chronic systemic inflammatory disease characterized by joint destruction.  Up to 80% of patients have some limitation of their activities and 25% are unable to perform their usual daily activities.  By the age of 40, more than 90% of... Read More
  • Can Beta-Alanine help you workout harder and longer?

  • Published on Sep 15 2015
    What is Beta-Alanine? Protein is made from 20 different small units of amino acids.  It helps with building and repairing tissues (skin, nail, and muscles) and plays a vital part in making antibodies and insulin.  There are essential (9) and nonessential amino acids (11).  Out of the 20 amino acids... Read More
  • The Athlete's Heart - Male vs. Female

  • Published on Sep 14 2015
    The heart is arguably the most important muscle in the body.  It is the unit responsible for providing every part of the body with oxygen.  For this reason, it is of utmost importance to keep the heart healthy and strong.  This is done through exercise – particularly cardiovascular exercise. ... Read More
  • Is your foot bothering you? It could be HALLUX VALGUS!

  • Published on Sep 13 2015
    Foot pain is a common problem among older, obese, and active adults who participate in sports that involve running and jumping.  An understanding of basic foot anatomy and biomechanics can help guide the exam and diagnose the correct area.  Futhermore, your history of foot pain (onset, provocative... Read More
  • Do you have difficulty lifting your arm or limited range of motion?

  • Published on Sep 08 2015
    Overview:  Your shoulder has 4 main muscles (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, teres minor) to help stablilize and provide shoulder mobility.  Chronic movement (particularly overhead movement) and injuries can cause these muscle tendons to be inflamed.  Inflammation will cause you to... Read More
  • Your KNEE pain could be Patellofemoral Syndrome!

  • Published on Sep 07 2015
    Overview:"Runner's knee," aka patellofemoral pain, describes any pain involving the patellofemoral joint.  Often, it's caused by repetitive pressure causing unbalanced force on the knees.  The knees can feel 3-5x the body weight when going into full knee flexion (e.g. squatting and running).  It's... Read More
  • Is Elbow Pain limiting your activity?

  • Published on Sep 07 2015
    Overview:Repetitive use of wrist flexion, extension and protonation can cause tendinopathy.  Repetive overuse can cause microtrauma to the insertion site of the tendon to your bone.  Overtime, the wearing and scaring of the tendon can create microchanges that lead to weakening of the tendon. ... Read More
  • Could I Have Plantar Fasciitis?

  • Published on Aug 31 2015
    Plantar Fasciitis is a common foot ailment that plagues 10%-16% of the population.  The majority of people who present with heel pain will have the condition.What is plantar fasciitis?Plantar fascia is a band of connective tissue inside the foot.   It begins in the heel and extends to each of the... Read More
  • Back in the Ring...Side Medicine

  • Published on Aug 13 2015
    After a couple years away, Dr Carfagno has rejoined up with the Arizona Boxing and MMA Commission and will be the Ringside Physician this Saturday night. 
  • Los Angeles Rock and Roll Half Marathon and 5K

  • Published on Aug 12 2015
    Dr Carfagno will be the head medical director at the Los Angeles Rock and Roll Half Marathon and 5k, this October 25th 2015.  If you're competing in it or watching, stop by the expo or the medical area and say Hi!
  • How important is Magnesium in your diet?

  • Published on Aug 11 2015
    Magnesium plays a key role in energy metabolism and is therefore crucial to exercise performance. It also is involved in protein synthesis, cellular energy production and storage, cell growth and reproduction, and DNA and RNA synthesis. Magnesium also helps with nerve and muscle function, heart... Read More
  • Baker's cyst: is the pain in your knee serious?

  • Published on Aug 06 2015
     What is a Baker's Cyst?A Baker's cyst is also known as a popliteal cyst. It is a benign cyst that is located behind your knee. It is filled with fluid and can cause tightness behind your knee that gets worse when you fully flex or extend your knee. Baker's cyst is named after William Baker (1838–... Read More
  • Thoracic Outlet Syndrome in the Bodybuilder

  • Published on Jul 28 2015
    Case: 20-year-old bodybuilderReason for visit: 3 months of pain in both shoulders with pain radiating down his armsAfter history and physical examination, he was determined to have bilateral neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome. What is thoracic outlet syndrome?Thoracic outlet syndrome is a pattern... Read More
  • The Role of Corticosteroids and the Adrenal Gland

  • Published on Jul 27 2015
    Most people have been prescribed prednisone (or a glucocorticoid) at one point in their lives or at least have heard of it. Even though corticosteroids are used so commonly, the general public does not know much about them.What is a corticosteroid? Does your body naturally make it?Corticosteroids... Read More
  • Exercise intolerance: deconditioning or cardiopulmonary dysfunction?

  • Published on Jul 22 2015
    Case 65-year-old crossfit athleteReason for visit: Shortness of breath and lightheadedness during crossfit workoutHow do we approach shortness of breath?Shortness of breath and exercise intolerance can be due to many different causes. Some causes of exercise intolerance are cardiopulmonary disease... Read More
  • What is plica syndrome?

  • Published on Jul 21 2015
    There are many causes for anterior knee pain in the athlete.  One cause is plica syndrome. The plica is an extension of the synovial membrane in the knee. It can become inflamed or irritated following trauma or an increase in physical activity. Plica syndrome can cause anterior knee pain and a... Read More
  • Dull pain in the front part of the knee. What is it?

  • Published on Jul 15 2015
    A 30-year-old yogini presented with pain in the anterior (front) and posterior (back) aspect of the knee. In 2012 she was diagnosed with MS (multiple sclerosis). Until a couple of weeks ago the patient was very active, doing yoga 4 times a week, attending gymnastic classes and going to the gym.... Read More
  • When a jump ball goes wrong

  • Published on Jul 14 2015
     Case: 32-year-old basketball playerReason for visit: Twisted right knee while playing basketball two days ago. Now has an achy pain in his right knee and some swelling.After physical exam and appropriate imaging, he was found to have a torn meniscus.What is a meniscus? What is its function?A... Read More
  • Whey Worth It!

  • Published on Jun 30 2015
    There’s always a lot of talk around the gym about Whey protein.  Those who train regularly swear on the values of the supplement.But why is Whey protein such an important component of the diet?Contrary to popular belief, Whey is useful for all people and not just athletes.  It is one of two milk... Read More
  • Body Composition Techniques: Fool's Gold or Gold Standard

  • Published on Jun 24 2015
    Knowing your body composition is useful for several reasons, especially when trying to lose weight or train for an athletic event.  Many exercise physiologists would agree that tracking changes in percent body fat is essential to meeting weight and training goals.However, with all of the techniques... Read More
  • Feeling tired? Remember nap times as a kid?

  • Published on Jun 18 2015
    Try a power nap instead.You may not realize, but you’ve already had plenty of practice at power napping. Think back to your days at kindergarten and pre-primary– nap time. Whilst you may have been forced to nap against your will, this was your time to re-energize and re-charge. And for most of us,... Read More
  • Amniogenic Therapeutic Injection with a Great Result!!

  • Published on May 05 2015
    Our patient Marvin Y. had a rotator cuff tear and along with physical therapy, eventually underwent an Amniogenic Therapeutic Injection Ultrasound-Guided and had a fantastic result.  Ultrasound pre and post are displayed.
  • Welcome Michelle Cesena, Licensed Clinical Aesthetician

  • Published on May 04 2015
    Welcome Michelle Cesena, a Licensed Clinical Aesthetician at SSMI! Michelle is passionate about skincare. She will help you achieve your ultimate goal of youthful healthy skin. Michelle’s philosophy is to take a clinical approach and preventative measures in the aging process. Michelle will work... Read More

  • Published on Apr 30 2015
    SSMI CASE OF THE DAY: The fatigued Athlete.  The workoup of fatigue in an athlete and any individual for that matter is vast.  Nearly every system of the body may be accountable for fatigue.  From CardioPulmonary function, hormonal, hematological (marrow/blood), and more.  Through careful... Read More
  • Contributing Author

  • Published on Apr 22 2015
    Dr Carfagno is again a contributing author in the AMSSM's Sports Medicine CAQ Study Guide, the Second Edition.  He wrote 5 questions and answers which help Sports Medicine physicians read to study for the Sports Medicine, CAQ Boards.
  • Dexa Bone Density Scan

  • Published on Apr 21 2015
    DXA is most often used to diagnose osteoporosis, a condition that often affects women after menopause but may also be found in men and rarely in children. Osteoporosis involves a gradual loss of calcium, as well as structural changes, causing the bones to become thinner, more fragile and more... Read More
  • Scottsdale PD vs Salt River PD-Football Game

  • Published on Apr 21 2015
    Dr Carfagno and SSMI will be providing the medical event coverage for the annual Scottsdale PD vs the Salt River PD.  Game is this saturday, April 25th, at 7 pm.
  • Pennsylvania Orthopedic Society Meeting

  • Published on Apr 02 2015
    Dr Carfagno was a guest featured speaker on April 11th at the Pennsylvania Orthopedic Society meeting.  He spoke on the subject "Female Athlete Triad".  An entity commonly seen in female athletes in endurance sports as well as gymnastics, ballet.
  • Transverse Process Fractures of the Spine

  • Published on Feb 28 2015
    First off lets start off the discussion with describing what the transverse process of the spine is and what is the mechanism that causes us to fracture it, in the first place. The transverse process are the lateral projections off the right and left of our cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae... Read More
  • Botox

  • Published on Feb 01 2015
    Look and feel younger... today! Millions of women already know BOTOX® Cosmetic— a nonsurgical treatment that helps temporarily improve moderate to severe frown lines between the brows. Those moderate to severe vertical lines between the brows are sometimes referred to as 1’s, 11’s, or 111’s. Years... Read More
  • Kind words from a patient...

  • Published on Jan 30 2015
    After years of bad habits, I had begun developing a litany of health issues, ranging from massive weight gain, alopecia (hair falling out), heart flutters, and random injuries. However, with Doc's help and advice, I have gotten in as great of shape and as healthy as I've been since my college days... Read More
  • SSMI Patient profile: Mark D.

  • Published on Jan 30 2015
      This was written by our patient, Mark D. It's a great story and a great testament to the power of the VO2 Max test. Thank you, Mark, for sharing your story and inspiring others to push harder and do more! I started running almost 5 years ago. It was October of 2008, and the girl I was dating at... Read More
  • Meet Joseph W and just try to stay unmotivated

  • Published on Jan 30 2015
    The following was written by my patient, Joseph. Thanks so much! "O. here's the question Dr. Carfagno is always asking, "Do we grow old because we stop playing games or do we stop playing games because we grow old?" So how would you answer that question for yourself....... hmmmm? I have... Read More
  • Go with your gut: Terra's story

  • Published on Jan 30 2015
    The following was written my SSMI patient Terra. Thanks, Terra! I have been a patient of Dr C. since 2012. No major medical issues except for typical triathlete pains and nags. No one would have thought that I would end up with a DVT and PE (blood clots) after racing. It started way back in July... Read More
  • SSMI Patient Story - LC

  • Published on Jan 30 2015
    Meet LC. She's 88 years young and one of our patients here at SSMI. She's been suffering from osteoarthritis of the spine and hip. To treat it, she's done physical therapy, taken medications and had injections in her back. The biggest relief and what helped her start to walk again has been platelet... Read More
  • SSMI Patient Story - My Dad

  • Published on Jan 30 2015
    This patient story hits very close to home for me, as it's by my father! I really appreciate him sharing his experience. In mid-January of this year, my son, Dr. David Carfagno, gave me a thorough physical exam. In addition to routine requirements (blood profile, urine, etc.) he requested that I... Read More
  • SSMI Patient Story - Andy D

  • Published on Jan 30 2015
    Congrats to Andy D!! He completed the 30 day Metabolic Program and totally crushed it, And he has awesome results! Here's what he has to say: "Just wanted to thank Dr. Carfagno and Dan and the whole staff for their encouragement and professionalism. I would encourage anyone who is thinking about... Read More
  • SSMI Patient Story - Jennifer H

  • Published on Jan 30 2015
    Jen is just the latest to join our Top Tens list -- check out her numbers! I'm so impressed with what she achieved. Here's what she had to say: "I'm so happy that I took the first step and started Dr. Carfagno's weight loss and workout program. I'm very pleased with my results so far and will be... Read More
  • SSMI Patient Story - Loren M

  • Published on Jan 30 2015
    Meet SSMI patient, Loren M. She's a real inspiration and represents what it means to be determined. I'm so happy to have met her! "My successes with SSMI have been happening a lot longer than just the one month Metabolic Program. In early 2010, I was diagnosed with POTS [postural orthostatic... Read More
  • Staff

  • Published on Jan 28 2015
    Dr. Carfagno's Back office staff Leona "MOM" Leona is Dr Carfagno's Mom.  In 2003 when he left a prominent orthopedic group and went on his own, she was very integral in starting up his practice.    Her passions are singing in the opera, raising her grandchildren, and truly enjoys working with... Read More
  • Dr. David Carfagno

  • Published on Jan 27 2015
    David Carfagno, D.O., C.A.Q.S.M. is Board Certified in Internal Medicine, Sports Medicine (CAQ) and Ringside Medicine (ABRM). His internship, residency and fellowship were completed at the world-renowned Cleveland Clinic Foundation. From the elite physiology of a Professional athlete to the severe... Read More